Tag Archives: Blockchain

Unilever, O2 and Sky Join Blockchain Pilot for Digital Ad Transparency

Unilever, O2 and Sky Join Blockchain Pilot for Digital Ad Transparency

                                 

Unilever, O2 and Sky are among the latest big firms to sign on to Jicwebs’ blockchain pilot program designed to improve trust and transparency in digital advertising. The news was revealed in a Nov. 12 report from United Kingdom-based industry magazine Campaign.

Industry involvement

Jicwebs — an acronym for the U.K. digital ad trading standards body, the Joint Industry Committee for Web Standards — first announced its blockchain pilot initiative in May 2019. It counts the participation of major global media agencies Zenith, OMD UK and Manning Gottlieb OMD, who have been evaluating the potential for blockchain technology to bolster transparency in the sector and increase operational efficiency. According to Campaign’s report, the U.K.’s popular online platforms Gumtree, Netmums and Rightmove have also all signed on to the project.

To complement the Jicwebs pilot, ISBA — an entity representing the U.K.’s leading advertisers — is also conducting an end-to-end audit of some of the problems that plague the digital ad sector, notably in regard to trust and brand safety. Richard Reeves, managing director of the Association of Online Publishers, said that the body welcomes “all initiatives that increase transparency for our members and shed light on where advertising spend is being distributed across the digital supply chain." If the pilot proves successful, Jicwebs reportedly plans to consult the digital ad industry on how to implement the blockchain solution in 2020.

An embattled industry

As previously reported, McDonald's, Nestlé and Virgin Media joined Jicwebs’ initiative this July. Blockchain technology is increasingly gaining traction in a sector that is battling the increasing threat of fraudulent activity, “deepfakes” and opaque financing. In late 2018, major Japanese car manufacturer Toyota partnered with blockchain advertising analytics firm Lucidity to reduce fraud in its digital ad campaign buys.

Article Produced By
Marie Huillet

Marie Huillet is an independent filmmaker, with a background in journalism and publishing. Nomadic by nature, she’s lived in five different countries this decade. She’s fascinated by Blockchain technologies’ potential to reshape all aspects of our lives.

https://cointelegraph.com/news/unilever-o2-and-sky-join-blockchain-pilot-for-digital-ad-transparency

 

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Comrade! Communist Party of China Now Promoting Blockchain

Comrade! Communist Party of China Now Promoting Blockchain

                                

In an interesting twist, China is now promoting blockchain, albeit from a communist angle, while censoring dissenting views.

China has an interesting history with cryptocurrencies and blockchain technology. At one time, most of the Bitcoin trading took place in China, and crypto mining is still heavily associated with the country. The last few years have seen the communist central government work against virtual currencies, such as banning exchanges and putting the squeeze on miners. However, China is now actively promoting blockchain but is doing so while adhering to the party line.

Censoring Naysayers

President Xi Jinping of China recently endorsed blockchain technology in a major policy speech. The effect of the speech was to see the stocks of blockchain-associated companies rise dramatically. Such a move seems like a good one, but there is a price to pay.That price is that the innovative technology must bend to the will of the communist government, which can be seen in several forms. The first form is the use of censorship that is being used to help promote blockchain. The central government is now banning articles that say blockchain is a scam, according to popular Twitter user cnLedger. Such a circumstance is a complete 180 from the prevailing attitude of just a year ago. However, blockchain technology is now useful to the country’s regime, so it gets the green (or should that be red, eh, comrade?) light.

App Promotion

Another form of how blockchain and communism are being linked is through an app. The Communist Party of China (CPC) has released an app called Xuexi Qiangguo that was designed by the Alibaba Group. This app teaches a course on Bitcoin and blockchain, but the kicker is that it does so through the political theory espoused by Xi Jinping, who just happens to be the Communist Party General Secretary in addition to being the Chinese president. The reach of the Xuexi Qiangguo app is huge. It is reported that it already has 100 million users. The course on Bitcoin and blockchain, taught by Chen Kang, can also be found on Xuetangx, a MOOC platform with 16 million users that was founded by Tsinghua University, the college that Chen Kang works at.

User Beware

The Xuexi Qiangguo app is not benign. Researchers from German cybersecurity company Cure53 and the Open Technology Fund, sponsored by the U.S. government, have found some malicious code within the app. The researchers say the code found in the app resembles “a backdoor which is able to run arbitrary commands with superuser privileges.” If run, the app’s code will allow a person to enjoy full system-wide administrative access. This means a bad actor could use the app to modify files, download software, or even install a keylogger. The app also scans other apps and sends the collected info (activity log, user info, etc.) to whoever is behind the malicious code. Cure53 also found that the app gives the Chinese government the ability to know “the location of every citizen at any single point in time.”

Make no mistake. China is deadly serious about being the world leader in regards to blockchain technology. A majority of the world’s blockchain-associated patents have been filed in China, and the central bank is reportedly close to launching its own state-controlled cryptocurrency. Mark Zuckerberg recently warned Congressional members that if the U.S. does not actively support cryptocurrency and blockchain, then it will cede the field to China.

Article Produced By
Jeff Francis

https://bitcoinerx.com/blockchain/comrade-communist-party-of-china-now-promoting-blockchain/

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What Is A Market Network? 

What Is A Market Network? 

Back in 2015, it was exhibited that the next 10 years would be all about Market Networks whereas the last decade was focused on Social Networks. There were a few companies mentioned that were deemed to be market networks and essentially had the key factors of a market network and what it is purported to be. However, since then we have gone next level with blockchain technology. But has any of those market networks actually adopted this new and beneficial technology?

 

So what exactly is a Market Network?

 A market network is a combination of a marketplace and a social network that includes SaaS which helps the individuals in the market network to work with customers and other service providers to build relationships rather than just quick transactions we experience on eBay or Amazon. 

Marketplaces are essentially about selling your product or service even though reviews of goods purchased by the customer are there to guide potential customers’ purchasing decisions. However, marketplaces are predominantly where buyers and sellers meet for one-off transactions. Typically, marketplaces are an accumulation of sellers. 

 

We all know what social networks are. Over the last 15 years, most of us have participated in Facebook or Linked to communicate with people and build relationships for whatever reason. However, commerce is not the core objective of social networks. 

 

SaaS (Software as a Service) are business applications, including email and collaboration, customer relationship management (CRM), billing/payroll processing, sales management, human resources management, financial management, database management, enterprise resourcing planning (ERP), content management, and document editing and management.

So what we had was two separate places for your online presence and commerce. A marketplace to sell stuff, and a social network to build relationships. The SaaS doesn’t exist on these platforms, that’s separate and an added expense for business owners and marketers.

But what if you provide a service that is more involved than a simple buy-sell transaction. On top of that, what if you need collaboration with other professionals in your industry to form a team to provide a complete service?

Well, that’s what market networks are all about. In the market network, you are a service provider, but also a person with a profile, with history, reviews, score, etc. You can team up with other people to provide a complex service to a customer and channel the workflow through a SaaS solution.

 

How Does Blockchain Fit Into The Market Network Model? 

To be successful in online branding and operating a business in the ever-expanding internet world, you must maintain your profile in many networks, social and market. It’s difficult to effortlessly scale your reputation from one network to a different one. They are pretty much isolated from each other and they can’t communicate with each other, nor do they really want to because they generally belong to someone. And it so happens that “someone” is never the community that brings value to the platform.  It’s not easy for a centralized market network to diversify among service providing platforms and it takes a lot of effort to build and maintain individual profiles that you can only use in an isolated network. 

What if your online identity always belonged to you, not a service or platform? And also, the reputation of your branding was maintained by the network and that network also belonged to you? In other words, a decentralized reputation that would enable you to plug into any other centralized network. You see, when your reputation is decentralized, the entire digital space becomes your network. 

Blockchain is the ultimate framework or infra-structure tool that gives individuals true ownership of their digital selfhood and reputation. It creates self-sovereignty.  

 

Decentralization In The Marketplace

Decentralization has many features that are beneficial for industries and users around the world. Reduced fees, increased efficiencies, removal of biased agendas and tiers of corruption and greed.

There have been companies like Airbnb and Uber that introduced a new era allowing people to rent out and monetize items. Or eBay and Etsy allowed people to sell products online and Upwork and Fiverr helped freelancers to sell their services. At this stage, these companies are all centralized and very linear with no collaboration between them.

Enter Blockchain.

A decentralized marketplace allows for true peer-to-peer transactions without centralized authorities taking their fees. This is made possible through blockchain technology and smart contracts. We no longer need the trusted third party verifying sellers and ensuring payments. 

 

Decentralization In Social Media

The traditional social media platforms are losing their edge, and their users have taken a massive beating. While some have given up on their social media world completely because it’s affecting their psychological well-being, some have become very disappointed with the fact that the benefit of their work was being passed onto the site more than them or their hard work has been deleted by centralized authorities due to hidden agendas. 

If this wasn’t enough, user data, which is meant to be confidential, is being made available in the open market, with governments, advertising companies and more having access to it. This has made users apprehensive about sharing personal details of their lives.

 

Enter Blockchain

Blockchain is going to transform the user experience in social media networking. These are important factors like the users’ information is encrypted on the blockchain network, so the privacy of data is maintained. Also, a platform can offer monetary compensation and loyalty programs for any and all activity performed by the user. Imagine producing viral content on the platform and getting paid for it? This does not happen on traditional social media, fast becoming a product of drama, agendas, and antiquity.  

There are upcoming platforms that are classed as social media on the blockchain whereby you can monetize your blogs, some even have a messaging app integrated, but it stops there. Imagine a complete Market Network as described above that is decentralized, pluggable, and portable which are key components and that have the capabilities to have your marketing, blogging, Storefronts, in fact, all your branding goes viral across all platforms in the internet space?

Enter Markethive – Embracing Blockchain Technology 

Markethive is a social marketplace, digital media platform for entrepreneurs that have the combined power of Facebook/LinkedIn, Marketo/Hubspot and Amazon/eBay along with Crypto News Sites like Cointelegraph/Bitcoin.com. Delivering a dynamic social network, integrated with Inbound Marketing (SAAS), numerous commerce platforms, storefronts coupled with augmented reality, and multiple traffic portals, built on the blockchain.

Does It Pay?

Markethive is a next-generation Market Network and the first to adopt blockchain technology that has positioned itself as a complete ecosystem for Entrepreneurs. Using the latest technology, it provides prosperous solutions for all business owners, marketers who require an online presence. Including Markethive’s own Coin (MHV) and Crypto Exchange for ease of liquidity as well as purchasing products and services within the Markethive ecosystem.

Creating a “Universal Income” for entrepreneurs, Markethive is delivering an infinity airdrop incentive to new subscribers, Bounty, and Loyalty programs and has set up the entire system with faucet like or micropayment rewards for using the system, including “Tips” instead of “Likes” This means the whole system is monetized for the benefit of all users. The income potential is huge and the MHV Coin ensures that all users will earn money for everything they do in Markethive.

 

So What Do You Get?

Markethive's functionalities include SEO features, Analytics, Customer Management System, Traffic Portals, Capture Page and Lead Creation, Profile Page, Resume, E-commerce portals, Video Conferencing, Blogging Platform, Messaging, Press Release, and Sponsored Article distribution, Banner Program and much more. Also included are significant training tutorials and weekly live support meetings, with a step by step automated tutorial system in the works.

Inbound Marketing is a key component of Markethive’s embodiment. Markethive plugs into all Social Media, simplifying your marketing efforts, with automated email campaigns allowing for lead flow into your designated business. Markethive incorporates collaboration building relationships within the community. 

Did I mention that the inbound marketing component is free to use while being rewarded with MHV? The only thing that is more rewarding beyond your wildest dreams is the loyalty program which enables you to profit from all facets of the Markethive system including receiving dividends from the company’s net profits. It basically means you as part of the Markethive community own a piece of Markethive, unlike the centralized companies with their venture capitalists and shareholders.

Conclusion

The potential of what the blockchain offers is extremely exciting. And although we are seeing some companies integrating the blockchain as they see what it can do for them and the world holistically, large scale adoption may still take some time. However, the unconventionality of this next-level technology shouldn’t deter marketers, business owners, entrepreneurs, in fact, anyone with a social or marketplace profile from embracing this new protocol given that it offers people many advantages in the form of transparency, security, anonymity, and performance with the added benefit of self-sovereignty. 

In the next article, we will explore Inbound Marketing and blockchain. Stay tuned… 

 

ecosystem for entrepreneurs

 

 

Deb Williams 

A Crypto/Blockchain enthusiast and a strong advocate for technology, progress, and freedom of speech. I embrace "change" with a passion and my purpose in life is to help people understand, accept and move forward with enthusiasm to achieve their goals. 

 

 

 

 

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Volvo: Cobalt Used In Car Batteries Will Be Recorded On Blockchain

Volvo: Cobalt Used In Car Batteries Will Be Recorded On Blockchain

Volvo Cars Company announced that the Cobalt used in the electric car batteries

will be recorded or tracked on the blockchain, reported on 06 November 2019. According to the report, this new announcement of the use of blockchain traceable Cobalt is followed by Volvo’s first fully electric car named the XC40 Recharge announcement that was published last month. For the further development or implementation of this new technology, Volvo already did an agreement with its two car’s battery suppliers named China-based CATL and South Korea-based LG Chem. As per the deal, These two battery suppliers will be responsible to fulfill the requirement of batteries in Volvo’s new model cars for the next decade as well as they have to use blockchain technology for

tracing required raw materials.

“Blockchain technology, which establishes a transparent and reliable shared data network, significantly boosts transparency of the raw material supply chain as the information about the material’s origin cannot be changed undetected.”

– Volvo Cars Company

The raw material traceable blockchain system is already ready for use as it was successfully tested in august by blockchain firm Circulor and software giant Oracle on

CATL’s supply chain.

“We have always been committed to an ethical supply chain for our raw materials, With blockchain technology we can take the next step towards ensuring full traceability of our supply chain and minimising any related risks, in close collaboration with our suppliers. ”

– head of procurement at Volvo Cars, Martina Buchhauser

Previously, The encrypted peer to peer messaging application Telegram has launched the test wallet for its native cryptocurrency GRAM token. Telegram has launched the wallet for Windows, iOS and Linux users. Users can download the gram wallet from the official website.

Article Produced By
Blockchain News

https://bitcoinik.com/volvo-cobalt-used-in-car-batteries-will-be-recorded-on-blockchain/

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What Companies Have Already Adopted Blockchain Technology? 

What Companies Have Already Adopted Blockchain Technology? 

Over the last two years, we’ve seen a growing amount of interest and even hype towards cryptocurrencies and a new world economy. It seems that hype is now subsiding and giving way to more of a natural, organic growth of Blockchain Technology. Banking is only the beginning and now society can benefit from Blockchain Technology in many other industries. This will transform the way companies do business so ultimately the use cases for a transparent, immutable ledger of transaction data are virtually endless. 

Since the blockchain is a decentralized entity, it requires no centralized supervision which makes it resistant to fraud. From logistics to real estate, digital ID management, social media and now the next-generation market network, corporations around the world are making overwhelming advances in the adoption of Blockchain Technology. Here a just a few companies that already have integrated the blockchain into their operations.

FedEx

FedEx is one of the world’s biggest logistics management companies and handles billions of dollars worth of cargo every year. FedEx has now become the first big shipping giant to incorporate Blockchain technology into their supply chain management. They are using Blockchains to track high-value cargo and are extending the functionality to almost all their shipments. In addition to that, they are also helping to develop the Blockchain-based industry standards for supply chain logistics establishing themselves as pioneers in this field.

FedEx together with two other major international delivery services firms DHL Express and UPS is a member of the Blockchain in Transport Alliance. In September of 2018, the firm joined Hyperledger, an open-source project established to improve cross-industry blockchain technologies. The collaboration will purportedly enable the company to build blockchain-based industry-grade applications, platforms and hardware systems.

Microsoft

The tech giant Microsoft has embraced Blockchain Technology since its inception. Microsoft had started accepting Bitcoin payments on its website in 2014 when almost no one had even heard of cryptocurrencies. Microsoft has also secured 40 patents related to the use of Blockchains as payment gateways and for secure storage. 

Bill Gates and several of his nonprofit organizations have looked at Blockchains to try to improve their structure. Microsoft is also letting businesses and developers deploy their own Blockchain using Stratis in Microsoft Azure. Microsoft Azure is a cloud computing service created by Microsoft for building, testing, deploying, and managing applications Microsoft-managed data centers.

Burger King – Russia

In 2017, fast-food giant Burger King launched its own cryptocurrency token in Russia, called WhopperCoin on the Waves platform. Named after the brand’s flagship burger, WhopperCoin is Burger Kings’s attempt at using Blockchain to power their rewards program. What’s unique about this approach is that unlike traditional rewards programs, WhopperCoin tokens can be stored online, traded or even transferred to other people using the Waves platform. Customers would receive a WhopperCoin for every Rouble they spend at Burger King and correspondingly a Whopper could be bought for 1700 WhopperCoin. 

Notably, Starbucks is working with Microsoft to develop a blockchain-based supply chain tracking system and mobile app that will allow customers to track the supply chain journey of the beans they buy and the coffee they drink. … Last year, Starbucks worked with more than 380,000 coffee farms to ensure ethical sourcing.

KIK Messenger

KIK is one of the biggest online chat platforms with over 300 million active users. KIK concluded its ICO in 2017 and had recently integrated the Kin cryptocurrency in their platform which can be used to make payments to other users of the platform. Although they have been through some trials and tribulations, they are moving forward with thanks to the Medialab acquisition. The main attraction of Kik that sets it apart from other messaging apps is its anonymity.

The Kin Foundation announced it is able to offer zero-fee transactions by using its unique network. KIN is the cryptocurrency and although blockchains are often developed by a community, some are built by companies, which can afford to cover transaction costs. Kik has managed to eliminate transaction fees in the way.  

 

IBM

IBM is shaping up to be one of the giants in the cryptocurrency space by providing the backbone of Blockchain-related services to businesses. Using the Hyperledger Blockchain creator tool, they can help the organizations to create their own distributed ledger and smart contract systems. They have already partnered with some businesses that deal with logistics to increase efficiency and lower costs for them. 

The partners include logistics giants like Walmart and banks like the Bank of Montreal (BMO), CaixaBank, Commerzbank, Erste Group, and the United Bank of Switzerland (UBS). With food logistics as in the case of Walmart, the goal is to make the supply chain more secure so that contamination can be reduced. While the banks have come to develop a Blockchain trade finance platform called Batavia.

 

Walmart

Walmart and nine other food companies have partnered with IBM to create a Blockchain for tracking food globally through its supply chain. Real-time data will be captured at every point, on every single food product. The Food Trust Blockchain, which includes Nestlé SA, Dole Food Co., Unilever, and several others. 

These companies have been collaborating with IBM on the initiative since 2016 and began conducting trials of the product in August of last year. Their goal is to improve the companies’ ability to identify issues involved with food recalls, such as tracing outbreaks more quickly to limit customer risk. Walmart appears to have joined the initiative after the outbreak of salmonella in the supply chain last year.

Overstock.com

Overstock has been one of the biggest advocates of Blockchain Technology from the beginning and lets users purchase all the items on their website using Bitcoin. The company sells home decor, furniture, bedding, and many other goods that are closeout merchandise. 

Patrick M. Byrne, the founder of the company, is a staunch supporter of cryptocurrencies and has been outspoken about his commitment to decentralized currency. Byrne has made it quite clear that he wants to run a blockchain business, not a retailer. The company has made some moves into blockchain over the past few years. 

It launched the Medici Ventures investing firm to focus on blockchain technology, a public digital ledger of transactions, and has also developed its own tZero security tokens for e-commerce and trading. Since then, Byrne has stepped down as CEO of Overstock and president of Medici Ventures Jonathon Johnson has taken over. Johnson has been very instrumental in getting the company heavily invested in the blockchain business. 

Huawei Technologies

Huawei has rolled out its global blockchain which is a Cloud Blockchain where enterprises can develop, deploy and manage blockchain applications. Being one of the top manufacturers of mobile phones, they also want to use the Blockchain to create a better user experience and systemize the mobile industry further to reduce fraud and trickery. 

Huawei claimed in a recent press release that, “Blockchain Technology offers mobile carriers superb opportunities to support the transformation of business models through new network layers, which can revolutionize how data integrity is verified and value and rights are transmitted and tracked over the infrastructure to subscribers.”

Social Media And Blockchain

As the blockchain market evolves there is an increased interest from the social media giant, Facebook. Not sure how simple it will be to integrate a genuine blockchain, given they have 2 billion+ users which would mean scalability on a massive level. There’s also the key issue of the way it monetizes the personal data of its users. That actually threatens the privacy and user sovereignty that is crucial for blockchain. Twitter has also expressed an interest in the blockchain. 

In a distributed ecosystem, built on a  blockchain, the power lies with the people. In other words, there cannot be one singular entity with controlling powers over the rest of the network. This, among other things, protects against corruption and manipulation from the centralized entity. It also restores power to the community as a whole.

People are looking to migrate to better solutions for the sake of privacy and security alone. So while Facebook is looking for a way to implement blockchain into its network, others have already integrated blockchain technology at conception, making it a whole lot easier.

 

Blockchain Alternatives

Currently, so-called Social Media platforms on the blockchain are mainly blogging platforms, like Steemit and Yours.org. Steemit pays its users to contribute by writing or curating content. In the case of Yours.org, the community pays to view the articles that are posted by the writer. This can range from $0.10 to a few dollars depending on how much the writer believes the readers will be willing to pay to view it. 

Both Yours and Steemit have an upvoting system that also pays. You can earn Bitcoin SV with Yours.org if you create value, and Steemit pays in their three native digital currencies: SteemPower, Steem Dollars, and Steem, which can then be converted into BTC or other cryptos on 3rd party exchanges. 

Minds.com is an open-source platform for content with encrypted messaging facilities built on the blockchain and has a growing user base that allows anyone to speak their mind and boost their content using its tokens. A free open internet is their goal and they are prepared to take all steps necessary to protect the users' rights.

 

Market Network and Social Media Combined

Markethive is a decentralized Market Network integrated with a social media interface with collaboration being a fundamental characteristic. Built on the blockchain with its own coin (MHV) is setting the pace of a new era in how we communicate and do business online. 

State-of-the-art integrated inbound marketing platform, social network, blogging platform, eCommerce business services, ewallet, coin exchange, mining datacenter, faucet lead portals, Loyalty & Bounty programs and News Media & Content Publisher for success in the crypto-preneurial and entrepreneurial markets.
Markethive pays you MHV coin in the form of micropayments for every activity you execute on the platform. It’s not limited to creative blogging. You can tip members instead of likes which in turn earns more coin. At the moment you also receive 500 coins for just signing up as a free member. There are many more incentives to be part of this growing network including the Loyalty Program which will pay you dividends from the company’s net profits as Markethive continues to establish itself. Markethive is the first social/market network on the blockchain.

Markethive’s mission and objective are to pioneer “Universal Income” worldwide. To empower the novice through to the seasoned entrepreneur.  

 

 

Social Networks Were The Last 10 Years. Market Networks Will Be The Next 10.

First, we had communication networks, like telephones and email. Then we had social networks, like Facebook and LinkedIn. Although it has been said Facebook has become a surveillance network masquerading as a social network.
It’s just a matter of time until nearly all independent professionals and their clients will conduct business through collaborative Market Networks and have a massive positive impact on how millions of people work and live, and how hundreds of millions of people buy and sell better services. Also be able to impart any and all information through blog casting without fear of being banned or spied upon, along with creating relationships of value and integrity.

 

Conclusion

Investments in blockchain startups are one of the indicators of the rise in the growth of the blockchain market.  2017 showed the potential for blockchain growth with a little over $1 billion in cryptocurrency investments. In 2018, there was a further increase in blockchain and cryptocurrency investments. This resulted in a cool $3.9 billion through venture ca[ital investments. 

2017 has been described as the year of blockchain tourism, while 2018 was all about experimenting and testing blockchain technology. The time has come now for more companies to utilize it. As illustrated in this article we see many different industries adopting blockchain technology and because blockchain has numerous uses we will see a lot more companies integrating and using this technology to solve real-world issues. 

 

ecosystem for entrepreneurs

 

Deb Williams 

A Crypto/Blockchain enthusiast and a strong advocate for technology, progress, and freedom of speech. I embrace "change" with a passion and my purpose in life is to help people understand, accept and move forward with enthusiasm to achieve their goals. 

 

 

 

 

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Utah to Facilitate Voting for Disabled Individuals through Blockchains

Utah to Facilitate Voting for Disabled Individuals through Blockchains

                                 

So far, numerous case studies regarding blockchain’s usability as a voting platform

have been carried out by local governments, NGOs and private entities. So far, the results look promising, in the sense that blockchain can easily facilitate secure and transparent voting, thus completely eliminating fraud, while also making the process more seamless.

Despite this aspect, blockchain is currently mostly used for voting purposes by platforms that have implemented the system for their self-governance. Luckily, recent reports indicate that blockchain technology will soon be used in Utah, as part of a trial project meant to allow disabled individuals to cast their votes. To put things into perspective, the local council and government of Utah have decided to allow blockchain-based voting via smartphones in the upcoming municipal election that will take place in November. The platform that disabled voters will be using for this election represents the result of a fruitful partnership between the Utah Country Elections Division, the National Cybersecurity Centre, Tusk Philanthropies and Voatz, a local voting app development company.

The decision comes after a study conducted by the National Cybersecurity Centre has determined that the blockchain-based voting platform does in fact work, following a few trial runs. The idea here is to initially test the platform on a small group, and if everything goes according to plan, it may be very well integrated into all future elections that take place in Utah. A recent press statement given by Michela Menting, a director for ABI Research, reads: “I think it’s a great expansion on the mobile voting project. There is certainly potential to extend such technology to the general public, but it is always contingent on succeeding in smaller focus groups first, and especially those which may often find it more difficult to vote – due to location or disability as in this example.”

So far, several audits were also conducted on even smaller groups. With this in mind, the same platform has been used for overseas voters in the West Virginia elections, but also in Denver. All trials that have been carried out so far have been audited, and the results were completely accurate, as anyone might expect from blockchain technology. An important aspect worth keeping in mind is that for the past trial runs, very few people actually registered to use this platform. However, this makes sense since not a lot of publicity was carried out. For the upcoming elections in November, Amelia Gardner, a clerk, and auditor for the Utah County has stated that this time around, more people are likely to register, since the election authorities are working directly with the Disability Law Centre to further promote the project. Leveraging this technology is great news for disabled voters since transportation to polling stations is often difficult.

Apart from allowing individuals to cast their votes via the blockchain, the platform has several other functionalities. For instance, it features ID verification, but can also display a verification receipt, an image of the tabulated ballot, alongside the reference for the blockchain transaction. This data can then be printed out on a traditional ballot, which can be scanned just like traditional ballots. The platform also features solutions meant to simplify the process associated with absentee ballots, which can be quite labor-intensive. While everything looks great, some experts believe that further research and development efforts are still required to facilitate secure, fast, and cheap blockchain-based voting. For instance, Jeremy Epstein, who is the VC of the U.S. Technology Policy Council, has stated that challenges include, but are not limited to malware infections on the voter’s side, disruption attacks, server penetration, alongside DDoS attacks.

Our take on the matter is that these issues mostly exist since the blockchain being used for the voting platform isn’t distributed and decentralized enough, thus creating way for vulnerabilities. Mass implementation of this system would likely entail technical investments that would make the process secure and seamless from all points of view. After all, no widespread blockchain system has been hacked so far. The issue here is that the innovation stops right after the vote is cast – in other words, the vote counting and registration system remain outdated since ballots are still introduced in urns and counted by hand. However, we cannot expect to see the system implemented across Utah without several trial runs. After all, elections are no joke and failure is not an option.

Article Produced By
Daniel Dob

https://www.crypto-news.net/utah-to-facilitate-voting-for-disabled-individuals-through-blockchains/

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BLOCKCHAIN – Knowledge Is Power. Wisdom Is Power With A Purpose

BLOCKCHAIN – Knowledge Is Power. Wisdom Is Power With A Purpose


“Quote” accredited to Solitaire Parke

Blockchain is defined as one of the most significant technological advances in modern history, potentially on a par with the internet, which has led to it being dubbed “The Internet 3.0”. Despite the incredible potential of blockchain to reshape the world as we know it, there is still little understanding of what it is, what it does and why it is so revolutionary. 

The Real Origin Of Blockchain

Blockchain was first conceptualized by Stuart Haber and W. Scott Stornetta back in 1991, although they didn’t call it blockchain. They wrote a series of papers and patents. One, in particular, was How To Timestamp a Digital Document, published in 1991, which involved a cryptographically secured chain of blocks. This is what many consider to be the first incarnation of blockchain technology. Basically, they set out to create an immutable ledger. 


Stuart Haber and W.Scott Stornetta

As Stornetta stated in an interview,
“It’s unfortunate that so few people actually read all the papers and patents, because there are a few ideas that can be mined from there that some have since reinvented because they never read the papers.” 

Nevertheless, Stornetta is humbled by the fact that his 1991 paper about Timestamping ended up inspiring the whole blockchain movement. Interestingly, even after the “blockchain” work they did, the connection between it and money was overlooked. It was not until Satoshi released the Bitcoin whitepaper in 2008 that the connection became a reality and a peer to peer monetary system was created. 

There were references made to Haber and Stornetta in Satoshi’s whitepaper, 3 in fact…

Blockchain 101

Blockchain technology is not a company or an app, but an entirely new way of documenting data on the internet. The technology can be used for social networks, messengers, games, exchanges, storage platforms, voting systems, prediction markets, online shops and much more. This can be seen as a new internet, which is why some have labeled it “The Internet 3.0”

The information recorded on a blockchain can assume any form, whether it be signifying a transfer of money, ownership, a transaction, someone’s identity, an agreement between two parties, even how much electricity a lightbulb has used. However, to do so would require a confirmation from several devices namely computers on the network. 

Once an agreement also acknowledged as a consensus is reached between these devices to store any data on a blockchain, it is unquestionably there. It cannot be disputed, removed or altered without the knowledge and permission of those that made that record as well as the wider community. 

Why Is It Called A Blockchain?

Blockchain owes its name to how it works and the manner in which it stores data, namely that the information is packaged into blocks, which link to form a chain with other blocks of similar information.

It is this act of linking blocks into a chain that makes the information stored on a blockchain so trustworthy. Once the data is recorded in a block it cannot be altered without having to change every block that came after it, making it impossible to do so without it being seen by the other participants on the network.

Distributed ledgers have 4 key attributes:

  1. Recorded: stored information is timestamped.
  2. Immutable: Nothing that is recorded can be changed.
  3. Transparent: anyone can see the ledger of transactions
  4. Decentralized: the ledger exists on multiple computers, often referred to as nodes.

Essentially, each block contains the data it is recording. For example, a transaction like 1 MHV coin being sent from Tom to Jerry, as well as timestamps of when that information was recorded. It will also include a digital signature linked to the account that made the recording and a unique identifying link, in the form of a hash (think of it as a digital fingerprint), to the previous block in the chain. It is this link that makes it impossible for any of the information to be altered or for a block to be inserted between two existing blocks. In order to do so, all the following blocks would need to be edited too.

As a result, each block strengthens the previous block and the security of the entire blockchain because it means more blocks would need to be changed to tamper with any information. When combined, all of these create unquestionable storage of information, one that cannot be disputed or declared to be untrue.  It is important to note to be absolutely sure where you are sending money. On a blockchain, once a transaction is sent it is sealed and cannot be reversed.

 

 

The Three Pillars Of Blockchain Technology

Let’s go into more depth about the three main properties of blockchain technology which are;

  • Decentralization
  • Transparency
  • Immutability

Pillar #1: Decentralization

For decades now we have been subject to and use a centralized entity that stored all our data and we would have to interact solely with this entity to transact or acquire whatever information we required. 

A perfect example of a centralized system is the banks. They store all your money, and the only way that you can pay someone is by going through the bank.

When you google search for something, you send a query to the server who then gets back at you with the relevant information. That is called a simple client-server.

We have used centralized systems for many years, thinking all is well, however, they have several vulnerabilities.

  • Firstly, because they are centralized, all the data is stored in one spot. This makes them easy target spots for potential hackers.
  • If the centralized system were to go through a software upgrade, it would halt the entire system.
  • What if the centralized entity somehow shuts down for whatever reason? That way nobody will be able to access the information that it possesses.
  • Worst case scenario, what if this entity gets corrupted and malicious? If that happens then all the data that is there will be compromised.

So, what happens if we just take this centralized entity away?

In a decentralized system, the information is not stored by one single entity. In fact, everyone in the network owns the information.

In a decentralized network, if you wanted to interact or send money to someone, then you can do so directly without going through a third party. That was the main ideology behind Bitcoin and also the ideology of Markethive Coin. You and only you alone are in charge of your money. You can send your money to anyone you want without having to go through a bank.

 

Pillar # 2: Transparency

One of the most interesting and misunderstood concepts in blockchain technology is “transparency.” Some people say that blockchain gives you privacy while some say that it is transparent. Sounds contradictory, doesn’t it?

The simple fact is a person’s identity is hidden via complex cryptography and represented only by their public address. So, if you were to look up a person’s transaction history, you will not see “Tom sent 1 MHV” instead you will see “1MF1bhsFLkBzzz9vpFYEmvwT2TbyCt7NZJ sent 1 MHV”. This makes the person’s real identity secure and private while still being able to see all transactions that were done via their public address – transparency. 

This image shows what the blocks and transaction details of each public address on Blockchain Explorer

 

 

This level of transparency has never existed before within a financial system. It adds that extra, and much needed, level of accountability which is required by some of these biggest institutions.

Speaking purely from the cryptocurrency perspective, if you know the public address of one of these big companies, you can simply pop it in a blockchain explorer and look at all the transactions that they have engaged in. This forces them to be honest, something that they have never had to deal with before.

That’s of course if these companies integrate the blockchain. You can see why something like this can be very helpful for the finance industry right?

Pillar # 3: Immutability

Immutability, in the context of the blockchain, means that once something has been entered into the blockchain, it cannot be tampered with. Imagine how valuable this will be for financial institutes!
Imagine how many embezzlement cases can be nipped in the bud if people know that they can’t “work the books” and fiddle around with company accounts.

The reason why the blockchain gets this property is that of the cryptographic hash function. In simple terms, hashing means taking an input string of any length and giving out an output of a fixed length. In the context of cryptocurrencies like bitcoin, the transactions are taken as input and run through a hashing algorithm (Bitcoin uses SHA-256) which gives an output of a fixed length.

Let’s see how the hashing process works. We are going to put in certain inputs. For this exercise, we are going to use the SHA-256 (Secure Hashing Algorithm 256).

As you can see in the above image, in the case of SHA-256, no matter how big or small your input is, the output will always have a fixed 256-bits length. This becomes critical when you are dealing with a huge amount of data and transactions. So basically, instead of remembering the input data which could be huge, you can just remember the hash and keep track.

These hash functions make it ideal for cryptography. There are certain properties that a cryptographic hash function needs to have in order to be considered secure, however, there is just one property that we’ll focus on today. It is called the “Avalanche Effect.”

What this means is even if you make a small change in your input, the changes that will be reflected in the hash will be huge. Notice the change in the hash in the image below? Just because one letter was changed from a capital letter in the input hash, to lower case, it drastically affected the output hash. 

The blockchain is a linked list that contains data and a hash pointer that points to its previous block, hence creating the chain. What is a hash pointer? A hash pointer is similar to a pointer, but instead of just containing the address of the previous block it also contains the hash of the data inside the previous block.

This one small tweak is what makes blockchains so amazingly reliable and trailblazing.

Imagine this for a second, a hacker attacks block 3 and tries to change the data. Because of the properties of hash functions, a slight change in data will change the hash drastically. This means that any slight changes made in block 3, will change the hash which is stored in block 2, now that in turn will change the data and the hash of block 2 which will result in changes in block 1 and so on and so forth. This will completely change the chain, which is impossible. This is exactly how blockchains attain immutability.

 

Conclusion

With any disruptive idea, like the Internet was back in the day, not every company will benefit or embrace this new technology immediately. Banks are clearly in the path of the disruption of the blockchain, the Big Data social network systems, the online auction, and shopping centers are as well. And companies that resist blockchain will be left behind in the Internet 3.0.
 
Forward-looking companies that convert to the blockchain to improve the privacy and security of their data and create an environment that is unfettered from political and nefarious agendas, will be the winners on top. 

Just about every company that migrates to the blockchain and new companies launch built upon the blockchain, will prosper, as long as they deliver and make their prime agenda to benefit their customers.

In the next article, we’ll see what companies have already adopted blockchain technology including Social Media and Market Networks and how it proves to benefit the user. 
 

References: Lisk, Blockgeeks

 

ecosystem for entrepreneurs

 

 

Deb Williams 

A Crypto/Blockchain enthusiast and a strong advocate for technology, progress, and freedom of speech. I embrace "change" with a passion and my purpose in life is to help people understand, accept and move forward with enthusiasm to achieve their goals. 

TP

BLOCKCHAIN EVOLUTION -  A Global Revolution

BLOCKCHAIN EVOLUTION – 
A Global Revolution

It should be clear by now that the blockchain and distributed ledger technology will play a very important role in our future, but it’s not. Blockchain adoption statistics show that half a percent (0.05%)  of the human population is currently using blockchain technology, or somewhere around 40 million people. According to an HSBC survey, 59% of consumers have never heard of blockchain and 80% of those that have heard of blockchain don’t understand it. 

According to even the most conservative estimates, this number is expected to quadruple in 5 years, and in 10 years, 80% of the population will be involved with the blockchain technology in some form. It’s just a matter of education on a simple level where the mainstream community can grasp the concept and understand that this technology stands for freedom, privacy and equality on every level in every country worldwide.

 

WHAT IS BLOCKCHAIN? How Would It Serve Us?? 

courtesy of Blockgeeks

Firstly, let’s take a historical look at how this all came about. Was it just a coincidence? Society has been indoctrinated for so long and tends to stay within the status quo or have become complacent putting up with the way things are. It’s time to educate ourselves and be ready for a major shift from the world as we know it. This will benefit our quality of life and the lives of every living soul on the planet. 

Do you know what fiat currency is? Many people do not or at least don’t understand what it means. Here is a short explanation of how it has become detrimental to the economic system we all rely on today;

 

What Is Fiat Money?

 Fiat money or paper money has been defined as any money declared by a government to be legal tender. State-issued money which is neither convertible by law to any other thing, nor fixed in value in terms of any objective standard. Intrinsically, it’s valueless money used as money because of government decree.

Throughout history, fiat currencies have had the order of rising and eventually collapsing, often due to devaluation. Initially, paper money gets introduced into an economy whereby it creates an economic boom. Over time, however, it gets overprinted, slowly building inflation and losing value.

Fiat money is a government-issued currency that isn't backed by a commodity such as gold. Essentially it gives governments' central banks greater control over the economy because they control how much currency is printed.

We all know that money is an entity that can be used in exchange for goods and services and then, of course, there is another system to keep track of its ownership and transactions?—?who owns what, who has what, and who owes how much to whom. 

Historically, it has been widely accepted we need a third-party trusted entity to keep track of money, to keep those transactions and deal with the conflicts, if applicable. But that trusted party being central banks and the Government comes with a cost in terms of efficiencies, the potential for corruption, extra fees and so forth.

The GFC Of 2008 – A Prime Example

In simple terms, let’s go back and see the money flow in a specific scenario in the USA during 2008 where the trust model did not work that well – 

People were earning more money and stored it with a central authority (i.e. banks).
The central authorities/banks started to facilitate risky loans to attract new customers and faced significant defaults on such loans. Due to the inability of the people to pay back the money, many banks collapsed and filed for bankruptcy.

Banks were also using people’s money to invest and lost all the money that the customers had trusted them with. In a nutshell, the banks lost the money that the customers deposited with them, leaving the customers no way of recovering their money.

With the banking system on the brink of collapse, the Government tried to save or bailout some institutions by offering the people’s money (i.e. tax revenue). That created extra expense and of course exceeded the Government’s budget or income, so to alleviate this, the Federal Reserve chose to print more money. There seems to be this trend of printing money to “fix” problems. Theoretically, there is no fixed limit to the amount of money a government can print. A couple billion here, a few hundred billion there, and pretty soon you have a real liquidity crisis; the kind where you are drowning in money, none of which is worth much of anything.

The Gold Standard Kept “Them” Honest

In the past, in the USA and many other countries, Gold was used as the standard where the authorities could not print more money than the gold reserves and it seemed to be a good way to ensure that we use our economy like debit cards so as to keep inflation in check. Basically, you can’t spend what you don’t have.  But now we have credit cards and can spend what we don’t have. Whatever the perceived intentions Roosevelt and Nixon had to cut ties with Gold initially, there have since been ramifications. So effectively, now the Government can print as much money as they want which brings a multitude of issues.

Primarily, with more money being printed, the value of money is reduced and the economy is impacted. As an example, if you have $100 and the country has a total of $ 1000, you own 10% of the money. If the Government prints an additional $1000, you only own 5% of the money and that decreases the value of your money. 

This is what happened in the crisis of 2008. Banks giving bad loans were the cause. Printing the money was a mitigation that helped in this specific case.

Central banking is immoral. Fiat money and its inevitable inflation are theft; the banking monopoly robs people of opportunity and prosperity; the punishment of financial dissenters, such as black marketeers, negates freedom by denying individuals the use of their own property. Central banking’s structure has become so transparently unstable and fraudulent that people have lost their confidence and sense of security in it.

Technology Rises To The Fore

Only six weeks after the crisis, on Nov 01, 2008, a new concept and technology came to light that will positively impact society, business and reshape the financial world. ?A person (or persons) by the name of  Satoshi Nakamoto created a decentralized cryptocurrency known as Bitcoin and pioneered Blockchain technology.  The idea was to create a world where no central authority can control all the money. 

“I’ve been working on a new electronic cash system that’s fully
peer-to-peer, with no trusted third party.”?—?Satoshi Nakamoto

So, What Is A Blockchain? 

Blockchain has been defined as a digital ledger in which transactions are recorded chronologically and publicly. Interestingly, Satoshi Nakamoto, who developed and released the first blockchain never actually used the word “blockchain”. Only the words block and chain. 

A blockchain consists of a number of blocks, hence the term. Each block is a record of transactions of specific data, which can contain anything from Cryptos to voting records to medical data. When one block is completed and can no longer be updated with new data, it is added to the chain and another, new block, is formed.

All the information on the blockchain is publicly available, as it’s a decentralized system. Decentralized literally means that the information is stored on many computers distributed around the globe, and there’s no specific party or authority to control it.

Visualizing Blockchain Technology

You could think of blockchain as the Google Docs service – this is a very clever metaphor from William Mougayar.

Do you still remember the good-old-times when people used to create separate Word documents, save them, and then forward them to others for editing? You might, and some of you may still be doing it.

These days, it’s much easier to use a Google Doc, which allows us to create, view, comment, and edit the information in a live document online, given that we have the link and know where it’s located.

In a similar way, blockchain allows for the distribution of information. So, there we have a Google Doc – a block – that is duplicated thousands of times across a large network of computers around the world – a chain of blocks. The network is set to update every single document or block as and when it changed.

Blockchain – More Than Crypto

The blockchain is an undeniably ingenious invention and has since evolved into something greater. Blockchain technology created the backbone of a new type of internet. Originally devised for the cryptocurrency, Bitcoin, the tech community has now found other potential uses for the technology.  

Image Courtesy of Blockgeeks

 

The Problem with Centralized Infrastructure

Today on the Internet, we must constantly trust one another with sensitive data, transactions, and records. Most of our interactions on the Internet run on centralized web servers, and massive amounts of user data often exist in a single database. Current databases are designed to be controlled by “trusted” admins who can read, alter, block, and even delete data. The centralized architecture of the Internet today is not only inefficient but vulnerable to censorship and targeted attacks by both hackers and internal bad actors.

 

The Value of Decentralization

The decentralized architecture of a blockchain is a global network of computers simultaneously running the software and validating the chain of transactions is what ensures that the transaction record is never compromised. Decentralization is critical as an architectural principle. It makes a blockchain network less likely to fail, harder to attack, and harder for bad actors to game the system.

Conclusion

There are so many benefits to being on the blockchain and as more companies and industries adopt this technology the fairer, more honest and prosperous the world will become. The users of Social Media at this stage are particularly vulnerable to the issues that come with centralization being lack of privacy, data harvesting, fraud, and corruption to name a few. In the next article, we will go deeper into how the blockchain works, what industries are utilizing it and how it can positively impact social media and market networks

 

References: Blockgeeks Hackernoon

 

ecosystem for entrepreneurs

 

 

Deb Williams 

A Crypto/Blockchain enthusiast and a strong advocate for technology, progress, and freedom of speech. I embrace "change" with a passion and my purpose in life is to help people understand, accept and move forward with enthusiasm to achieve their goals. 

 

 

TP

Xi’s Accelerated Blockchain Adoption Pumps Chinese Shares

Xi’s Accelerated Blockchain Adoption Pumps Chinese Shares

China president Xi Jinping’s announcement of blockchain development

has caused a huge stir in the blockchain industry. All the blockchain-related share prices have increased and have received a huge boost as per Monday, October 28, 2019 analysis. On the Shanghai and Shenzhen stock exchanges, over 60 tech stocks surged by 10%. Shares of Pantronics Holding rose by 67% on Monday in HongKong. The Shenzhen Information Technology Index also closed with a 5.3% surge. This surge is the highest recorded in 2019. Meitu shares surged as much as 30%. Other companies such as Hundsun Technologies, Easysight Supply Chain Management Co, YGSOFT Inc, rose by 10% limit. Hong Kong’s benchmark Hang Seng Index finished 0.8 % higher on Monday.  Chinese blockchain platform NEO also experienced quite a rise in the share price following China president’s statement. the platform’s NEO cryptocurrency pumped 40% to a high of $13.75.

The speech that created the stir:

“Xi Jinping: Blockchain is vital for China’s future”

President Xi Jinping gave a speech on Thursday, October 24th. He emphasized that blockchain will elevate China’s growth and add substantial volume to the Chinese industry. He urged the blockchain adoption in the country to happen soon as the world is going digital. “It is essential for blockchain technology to play a bigger role in building China’s strength in cyberspace, developing the digital economy and advancing economic and social development,” Mr. Xi added. 

Other Developments following the speech:

The Thursday speech of Xi Jinping was just a statement until it affected Bitcoin and other altcoin prices. Friday, October 25th saw a sudden price hike in Bitcoin as well as XRP price. Bitcoin price had crossed the $10k mark for a few minutes. The Bitcoin market is still in uptrend and analysts claim that the price will reach above $12k if the same growth remains constant. China is all set to release its own national digital currency proposed in August 2019. The People’s Bank of China (PBOC) hs termed its currency as DCEP (Digital Currency Electronic Payment System ). The currency is in the final testing stage and will be released in November.

Article Produced By
Qadir AK

Qadir Ak – Co-founder of Coinpedia Blog – His interest as crypto Author, Editor, Speaker at cryptocurrency conference has made him known as passionate blogger and startup in Asia

https://coinpedia.org/news/xis-accelerated-blockchain-adoption-pumps-chinese-shares/

TP

Is South Korea Following China on Blockchain Adoption?

Is South Korea Following China on Blockchain Adoption?

China recently announced its endorsement of Blockchain Adoption in the country.

Following this, the crypto industry got very excited and as a result, Chinese Stock prices increased. Following the lead, the South Korean Government has pledged its own Blockchain adoption. On October 28, 2019; The government announced it’s interested in Blockchain. The South Korean Government will carry out support projects to develop the blockchain industry. The Korea Internet & Security Agency (KISA) will invest 10 billion won ($9.0 million) funds in blockchain-related projects in 2020. Moreover, KISA will focus on promoting the blockchain project to generate institutional interests in space-related education. Some USD 3.4 million in funding will be given by the government-run National IT Industry Promotion Agency (NIPA). NIPA will further introduce blockchain-related courses to cater to the country’s young developers, entrepreneurs, and technology enthusiasts.

KISA “We will find more blockchain businesses this year”

Min Kyung-Sik, head of KISA said “We are going to discover a lot of ‘blockchain things’ when we say that it is a characteristic of the next year’s blockchain business. We continue to communicate with the public demand agencies to find a lot of projects to discover these projects. ” KISA till now do not have plans to invest in crypto-related projects.

NIPA “Support technology verification to discover blockchain company”

NIPA wants to focus more on technology verification business, regulatory improvement research group operation, consulting support business, and human resource development business. Yong-Joo Bang, head of the team, said, “This year, it will be conducted in the form of identifying and supporting the areas that companies need. The budget will be about 400 million won per project. I look forward to taking the lead. ” About 10 projects will be chosen for next year while one or two of them will receive funding over a number of years. Both public sector and private sector projects will be eligible to apply and application will be taken through Nov. 11

How the ICON will be affected?

ICON (ICX) is the biggest South Korea based coin. It allows information to easily be exchanged between government, banks, financial firms, healthcare providers, educational institutions, and private companies. Earlier, a crypto trader had predicted ICON prices will increase if South Korea is to accept blockchain. However, the technical indicators as of now do not show potential growth for ICON. This Blockchain Adoption news from South Korea could cause cryptocurrencies based on the country to increase, the current price position and its technical indicators provide a bearish outlook.

Article Produced By
Qadir AK

Qadir Ak – Co-founder of Coinpedia Blog – His interest as crypto Author, Editor, Speaker at cryptocurrency conference has made him known as passionate blogger and startup in Asia.

https://coinpedia.org/news/south-korea-to-adopt-blockchain-in-2020/

 

TP

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